Breaststroke is the slowest of the four official styles in
competitive swimming. The fastest breaststroke swimmers can swim about 1.57 meters per
Breaststroke is swum while leaning on the chest, with the arms only breaking the surface
of the water slightly and legs always underwater, while the head is underwater for the
second half of the stroke. The kick is sometimes referred to as a "frog kick"
because of the resemblance to a frog's kick. The body is often at a steep angle to the
forward movement. This slows down the swimmer more than any other style.
A special feature of competitive breaststroke is the underwater pullout. From the
streamline position, one uses the arms to pull all the way down past the hips. As the arms
are pulling down, one downward dolphin kick is allowed, though still optional. This is
followed by the recovery of the arms to the streamline position once more, and then a
kick. The pullout at the start and after the turns contributes significantly to the
swimming times. Therefore one way to improve the swimming times is to focus on the start
and the turns.
The breaststroke starts with the swimmer lying in the water face down, arms extended
straight forward and legs extended straight to the back.
There are three steps to the arm movement: outsweep, insweep, and recovery. The movement
starts with the outsweep. From the initial position, the hands sink a little bit down and
the palms face outward, and the hands move apart. During the outsweep the arms stay almost
straight and parallel to the surface. The outsweep is followed by the insweep, where the
hands point down and push the water backwards. The elbows stay in the horizontal plane
through the shoulders. The hands push back until approximately the vertical plane through
the shoulders. At the end of the insweep the hands come together with facing palms in
front of the chest and the elbows are at the side at the body. In the recovery phase the
hands are moved forward again into the initial position under water. The entire arm stroke
starts slowly, increases speed to the peak arm movement speed in the insweep phase, and
slows down again during recovery. The goal is to produce maximum thrust during the insweep
phase, and minimum drag during the recovery phase.
As a variant, it is possible to recover the arms over water. This reduces drag, but
requires more power. Some competitive swimmers use this variant, in competition.
Another variant is the underwater pull-down, similar to the push phase of a butterfly
stroke. This stroke continues the insweep phase and pushes the hands all the way to the
back to the sides of the hip. This greatly increases the push from one stroke, but also
makes recovery more difficult. This style is well suited for underwater swimming. However,
FINA allows this stroke only for the first stroke after the start and each turn. In late
2005, FINA has also introduced a new rule which allows you to perform a single downward
kick after the push off the wall.
Tips: arms start slowly and speed up during the phases, similar to a motorcycle
accelerating after standing on a red light. The arms are never paused until they reach the
front and the swimmer is in the glide. You can learn more in this detailed arm stroke
The leg movement, colloquially known as the "frog kick", consists of two phases:
bringing the feet into position for the thrust phase and the insweep phase. From the
initial position with the legs stretched out backward, the feet are moved together towards
the posterior, while the knees stay together. The knees should not sink too low, as this
increases the drag. Then the feet point outward in preparation for the thrust phase. In
the thrust phase, the legs are moved elliptically back to the initial position. During
this movement, the knees are kept together. The legs move slower while bringing the legs
into position for the thrust phase, and move very fast during the thrust phase. Again, the
goal is produce maximum thrust during the insweep phase, and minimum drag during the
As a variant, some swimmers move the knees apart during the preparation phase and keep
them apart until almost the end of the thrust phase. Moving both knee and foot outwards
like a real frog avoids the extreme rotation in the lower leg.
Another variant of the breaststroke kick is the scissor kick, however, this kick violates
the rules of the FINA as it is no longer symmetrical. Swimming teachers put a great effort
into steering the students away from the scissor kick. In the scissor kick, one leg moves
as described above, but the other leg does not form an elliptical movement but merely an
up-down movement similar to the flutter kick of front crawl. Some swimming teachers
believe that learning the front crawl first gives a higher risk of an incorrect scissor
kick when learning breaststroke afterwards.
Breaststroke can also be swum with the dolphin kick in butterfly, yet this also violates
the FINA rules. One kick is allowed, however, at the start and at the turn providing that
it is part of the body's natural movement.
The harmonic movements of the dolphin kick and flutter kick are in contrast to the
breaststroke whip kick, which really deserves the name kick. Scissor kick and frog kick
are intermediate. Humans have strong muscles in the legs and would need swimfins (like a
frog) to bring all their power into the water and stand with the sole of the feet on the
water. Rather the leg grabs almost as much water as the foot and a small amount of water
is accelerated to high kinetic energy, but not much impulse is transferred. The toes are
bent, the feet point 45° outwards, the sole points backwards, to mimic a hydrofoil. While
closing in a V shape to the rear a small lifting force can be felt. Unlike in
the other kicks, the joints are moved into extrema. Before the kick the knee is maximally
bent and the upper leg is rotating along its axis to its extreme outer position and the
lower leg is twisted to extreme, at the end of the kick the ankles are maximally turned to
the inside so that the soles clap together to achieve a nozzle effect like in a jelly
fish. Therefore training involves getting flexible in addition to fitness and precision.
The sudden sideway stress on knee at the kick can lead to uncomfortable noise and feeling
for the beginner and to wear for the senior.
On recovery the lower leg stays in the wake of the upper leg. Around 2000 the distance
between the knees in the recovery phase was reduced to harmonize it with the optional body
The best way to breath during breaststroke is to let your head follow your spine. When
your elbows have reached the line of your eye and have begun to rise your head starts to
lift. If you use your high elbows as a hinge for the inward sweep of your hands and
forearms, you'll create the leverage you need to use your abdominal muscles to bring your
hips forward. When your hips move forward, your chest, shoulders and upper back will
automatically lift up. Breathing is usually done during the beginning of the insweep phase
of the arms, and the swimmer breathes in ideally through the mouth. The swimmer breathes
out through mouth and nose during the recovery and gliding phase. Breaststroke can be swum
faster if submerged completely, but FINA requires the head to break the surface once per
cycle except for the first cycle after the start and each turn. Thus, competitive swimmers
usually make one underwater pull-out, pushing the hands all the way to the back after the
start and each turn. Some people keep their head above water at all times when they swim
breaststroke. This is not only difficult and unpleasant, but also dangerous for the spine.
Swimming with the face held out of the water puts undue strain on the muscles of the neck
and back which can lead to damage of the spines interior facet joints.
movement starts in the initial position with the body completely straight, the body
movement is coordinated such that the legs are ready for the thrust phase while the arms
are halfway through the insweep, and the head is out of the water for breathing. In this
position the body has also the largest angle to the horizontal. The arms are recovered
during the thrust phase of the legs. After the stroke the body is kept in the initial
position for some time to utilize the gliding phase. Depending on the distance and fitness
the duration of this gliding phase varies. Usually the gliding phase is shorter during
sprints than during long distance swimming. The gliding phase is also longer during the
underwater stroke after the start and each turn.
Breaststroke uses the regular start for swimming. Some swimmers use a variant called the
frog start, where the legs are pulled forward sharply before being extended again quickly
during the airborne phase of the start. After the start a gliding phase follows under
water, followed by one downward butterfly kick, followed by one underwater pull-down and
another gliding phase before the regular swimming, this is known as the pull-out. The
downward butterfly kick was legalized by FINA and the NCAA in 2005, and remains optional.
The head must break the surface during the second stroke. The downward fly kick is now
allowed in MCSL.
Turn and finish
For competitive swimming it is important that the wall at the end of the lane is always
touched by both hands (known as a "Two-Hand Touch") at the same time due to FINA
The turn is initiated by touching the wall during the gliding or during the recovery phase
of the arms, depending on how the wall can be touched faster. After touching the wall, the
legs are pulled underneath of the body. The body turns sideways while one hand is moved
forward (i.e. towards the head) along the side of the body. When the body is almost
completely turned, the other hand will be swung straight up through the air such that both
hands meet at the front at the same time. At that time the body should also be almost in
the horizontal and partially or totally submerged. After the body is completely submerged,
the body is pushed off the wall with both legs. Doing this under water will reduce the
drag. After a gliding phase, an underwater pull-out is done, followed by another gliding
phase and then regular swimming. The head must break the surface during the second stroke.
As a variant, some swimmers experiment with a flip over turn similar to front crawl.
The finish is similar to the touching of the wall during a turn.
Styles of breaststroke
The three many styles of breaststroke seen today are the conventional (flat),
undulating, and wave-style. The undulating style is usually swum by extremely flexible
girls, (e.g. Amanda Beard), and few Masters have the flexibility to accomplish it. The
wave-style breaststroke, swum and made famous by Mike Barrowman when he created a world
record using it, is now commonly swum by Olympians, though Australian swimmers, most
prominently Leisel Jones, generally seem to shun it. Olympian Ed Moses (swimmer) still
swims a more flat- style, despite the rapidly increasing popularity of the wave-style.
The wave-style breaststroke starts in a streamlined position, with shoulders shrugged to
decrease drag in the water. While the conventional style is strongest at the outsweep, the
wave-style puts much emphasis on the insweep, thus making the head rise later than in the
conventional style. The wave-style pull is a circular motion with the hands accelerating
to maximum speed and recovering in front of the chin, elbows staying at the surface and in
front of the shoulders at all times. The high elbows creates the leverage for the powerful
torso and abdominal muscles to assist in the stroke. During the insweep, the swimmer
accelerates his/her hands and hollows his/her back and lifts him/herself out of the water
to breathe. To visualize, some say that the hands anchor themselves in the water while the
hips thrust forward.
The hollowed back and accelerating hands would lift the head out of the water. The head
stays in a natural position, looking down and forward, and the swimmer inhales at this
point. The feet retract to the butt without moving the thigh, thus reducing resistance.
The swimmer is at his/her highest point at this point.
Then the swimmer shrugs his shoulders and literally throws his arms and shoulders forward,
lunging cat-like back into the water (though the emphasis is to go forward, not down). As
the swimmer sinks, he/she arches his/her back, and kicks. The timing is very important in
order for the kick to transfer all of its force via the arched back, but the optimum time
is when the arms are 3/4 fully extended. Then the swimmer kicks and presses on his/her
chest, undulating a little underwater, and squeezing the gluteus maximus to prevent the
legs and feet from rising out of the water. The swimmer has now returned to the
streamlined position, and the cycle starts again.
Incidentally, the wave motion should not be overly emphasized and the swimmer should only
rise until the water reaches his biceps, instead of pushing his entire torso out of the
water, wasting a great deal of energy.
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